Supreme Court Nominations

The Constitution requires the president to submit nominations to the Senate for its advice and consent. Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, presidents have submitted 163 nominations for the Court, including those for chief justice. Of this total, 126 were confirmed (7 declined to serve). This chart lists nominations officially submitted to the Senate.
 

Nominee

To Replace

Nominated*

Vote**

Result & Date***

President Trump, Donald
Barrett, Amy Coney Ginsburg Sep 29, 2020 52-48  No.  224 C Oct 26, 2020
Kavanaugh, Brett Kennedy Jul 10, 2018 50-48  No.  223 C Oct 6, 2018
Gorsuch, Neil M. Scalia Feb 1, 2017 54-45  No.  111 C Apr 7, 2017
President Obama, Barack
Garland, Merrick B. Scalia Mar 16, 2016
N
Kagan, Elena Stevens May 10, 2010 63-37  No.  229 C Aug 5, 2010
Sotomayor, Sonia Souter Jun 1, 2009 68-31  No.  262 C Aug 6, 2009
President Bush, George W.
Alito, Samuel A., Jr. O’Connor Nov 10, 2005 58-42  No.  2 C Jan 31, 2006
Miers, Harriet O’Connor Oct 7, 2005
W Oct 28, 2005
Roberts, John G., Jr.1 Rehnquist Sep 6, 2005 78-22  No.  245 C Sep 29, 2005
Roberts, John G., Jr. O’Connor Jul 29, 2005
W Sep 6, 2005
President Clinton, Bill
Breyer, Stephen G. Blackmun May 17, 1994 87-9  No.  242 C Jul 29, 1994
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader White Jun 22, 1993 96-3  No.  232 C Aug 3, 1993
President Bush, George H.W.
Thomas, Clarence Marshall Jul 8, 1991 52-48  No.  220 C Oct 15, 1991
Souter, David H. Brennan Jul 25, 1990 90-9  No.  259 C Oct 2, 1990
President Reagan, Ronald
Kennedy, Anthony M. Powell Nov 30, 1987 97-0  No.  16 C Feb 3, 1988
Bork, Robert H. Powell Jul 7, 1987 42-58  No.  348 R Oct 23, 1987
Scalia, Antonin Rehnquist Jun 24, 1986 98-0  No.  267 C Sep 17, 1986
Rehnquist, William H. 2 Burger Jun 20, 1986 65-33  No.  266 C Sep 17, 1986
O’Connor, Sandra Day Stewart Aug 19, 1981 99-0  No.  274 C Sep 21, 1981
President Ford, Gerald
Stevens, John Paul Douglas Nov 28, 1975 98-0  No.  603 C Dec 17, 1975
President Nixon, Richard
Rehnquist, William H. Harlan Oct 22, 1971 68-26  No.  450 C Dec 10, 1971
Powell, Lewis F., Jr. Black Oct 22, 1971 89-1  No.  439 C Dec 6, 1971
Blackmun, Harry Fortas Apr 15, 1970 94-0  No.  143 C May 12, 1970
Carswell, G. Harrold Fortas Jan 19, 1970 45-51  No.  122 R Apr 8, 1970
Haynsworth, Clement, Jr. Fortas Aug 21, 1969 45-55  No.  154 R Nov 21, 1969
Burger, Warren 3 Warren May 23, 1969 74-3  No.  35 C Jun 9, 1969
President Johnson, Lyndon
Thornberry, Homer Fortas Jun 26, 1968
W Oct 4, 1968
Fortas, Abe 4 Warren Jun 26, 1968
W Oct 4, 1968
Marshall, Thurgood Clark Jun 13, 1967 69-11  No.  240 C Aug 30, 1967
Fortas, Abe Goldberg Jul 28, 1965 V C Aug 11, 1965
President Kennedy, John
Goldberg, Arthur Frankfurter Aug 31, 1962 V C Sep 25, 1962
White, Byron Whittaker Apr 3, 1962 V C Apr 11, 1962
President Eisenhower, Dwight
Stewart, Potter Burton Jan 17, 1959 70-17 C May 5, 1959
Whittaker, Charles Reed Mar 2, 1957 V C Mar 19, 1957
Brennan, William, Jr. Minton Jan 14, 1957 V C Mar 19, 1957
Harlan, John Jackson Jan 10, 1955 71-11 C Mar 16, 1955
Harlan, John Jackson Nov 9, 1954
N
Warren, Earl 5 Vinson Jan 11, 1954 V C Mar 1, 1954
President Truman, Harry
Minton, Sherman Rutledge Sep 15, 1949 48-16 C Oct 4, 1949
Clark, Tom Murphy Aug 2, 1949 73-8 C Aug 18, 1949
Vinson, Fred 6 Stone Jun 6, 1946 V C Jun 20, 1946
Burton, Harold Roberts Sep 18, 1945 V C Sep 19, 1945
President Roosevelt, Franklin
Rutledge, Wiley Byrnes Jan 11, 1943 V C Feb 8, 1943
Jackson, Robert Stone Jun 12, 1941 V C Jul 7, 1941
Byrnes, James McReynolds Jun 12, 1941 V C Jun 12, 1941
Stone, Harlan 7 Hughes Jun 12, 1941 V C Jun 27, 1941
Murphy, Frank Butler Jan 4, 1940 V C Jan 16, 1940
Douglas, William Brandeis Mar 20, 1939 62-4 C Apr 4, 1939
Frankfurter, Felix Cardozo Jan 5, 1939 V C Jan 17, 1939
Reed, Stanley Sutherland Jan 15, 1938 V C Jan 25, 1938
Black, Hugo Van Devanter Aug 12, 1937 63-16 C Aug 17, 1937
President Hoover, Herbert
Cardozo, Benjamin Holmes Feb 15, 1932 V C Feb 24, 1932
Roberts, Owen Sanford May 9, 1930 V C May 20, 1930
Parker, John Sanford Mar 21, 1930 39-41 R May 7, 1930
Hughes, Charles 8 Taft Feb 3, 1930 52-26 C Feb 13, 1930
President Coolidge, Calvin
Stone, Harlan McKenna Jan 5, 1925 71-6 C Feb 5, 1925
President Harding, Warren
Sanford, Edward Pitney Jan 24, 1923 V C Jan 29, 1923
Butler, Pierce Day Dec 5, 1922 61-8 C Dec 21, 1922
Butler, Pierce Day Nov 21, 1922
N
Sutherland, George Clarke Sep 5, 1922 V C Sep 5, 1922
Taft, William 9 White Jun 30, 1921 60-4 C Jun 30, 1921
President Wilson, Woodrow
Clarke, John Hughes Jul 14, 1916 V C Jul 24, 1916
Brandeis, Louis Lamar Jan 28, 1916 47-22 C Jun 1, 1916
McReynolds, James Lurton Aug 19, 1914 44-6 C Aug 29, 1914
President Taft, William
Pitney, Mahlon Harlan Feb 19, 1912 50-26 C Mar 13, 1912
Lamar, Joseph Moody Dec 12, 1910 V C Dec 15, 1910
Devanter, Willis Van White Dec 12, 1910 V C Dec 15, 1910
White, Edward10 Fuller Dec 12, 1910 V C Dec 12, 1910
Hughes, Charles Brewer Apr 25, 1910 V C May 2, 1910
Lurton, Horace Peckham Dec 13, 1909 V C Dec 20, 1909
President Roosevelt, Theodore
Moody, William Brown Dec 3, 1906 V C Dec 12, 1906
Day, William Shiras Feb 19, 1903 V C Feb 23, 1903
Holmes, Oliver Gray Dec 2, 1902 V C Dec 4, 1902
President McKinley, William
McKenna, Joseph Field Dec 16, 1897 V C Jan 21, 1898
President Cleveland, Grover
Peckham, Rufus Jackson Dec 3, 1895 V C Dec 9, 1895
White, Edward Blatchford Feb 19, 1894 V C Feb 19, 1894
Peckham, Wheeler Blatchford Jan 22, 1894 32-41 R Feb 16, 1894
Hornblower, William Blatchford Dec 5, 1893 24-30 R Jan 15, 1894
Hornblower, William Blatchford Sep 19, 1893
N
President Benjamin Harrison
Jackson, Howell Lamar Feb 2, 1893 V C Feb 18, 1893
Shiras, George, Jr. Bradley Jul 19, 1892 V C Jul 26, 1892
Brown, Henry Miller Dec 23, 1890 V C Dec 29, 1890
Brewer, David Matthews Dec 4, 1889 53-11 C Dec 18, 1889
President Cleveland, Grover
Fuller, Melville 11 Waite Apr 30, 1888 41-20 C Jul 20, 1888
Lamar, Lucius Woods Dec 6, 1887 32-28 C Jan 16, 1888
President Arthur, Chester
Blatchford, Samuel Hunt Mar 13, 1882 V C Mar 22, 1882
Conkling, Roscoe Hunt Feb 24, 1882 39-12 D Mar 2, 1882
Gray, Horace Clifford Dec 19, 1881 51-5 C Dec 20, 1881
President Garfield, James
Stanley Matthews Swayne Mar 14, 1881 24-23 C May 12, 1881
President Hayes, Rutherford
Matthews, Stanley Swayne Jan 26, 1881
N
Woods, William Strong Dec 15, 1880 39-8 C Dec 21, 1880
Harlan, John Davis Oct 16, 1877 V C Nov 29, 1877
President Grant, Ulysses
Waite, Morrison12 Chase Jan 19, 1874 63-0 C Jan 21, 1874
Cushing, Caleb13 Chase Jan 9, 1874
W Jan 13, 1874
Williams, George 14 Chase Dec 1, 1873
W Jan 8, 1874
Hunt, Ward Nelson Dec 3, 1872 V C Dec 11, 1872
Bradley, Joseph (new seat) Feb 7, 1870 46-9 C Mar 21, 1870
Strong, William Grier Feb 7, 1870
C Feb 18, 1870
Stanton, Edwin15 Grier Dec 20, 1869 46-11 C Dec 20, 1869
Hoar, Ebenezer (new seat) Dec 14, 1869 24-33 R Feb 3, 1870
President Johnson, Andrew
Stanbery, Henry Catron Apr 16, 1866
N
President Lincoln, Abraham
Chase, Salmon 16 Taney Dec 6, 1864 V C Dec 6, 1864
Field, Stephen (new seat) Mar 6, 1863 V C Mar 10, 1863
Davis, David Campbell Dec 1, 1862 V C Dec 8, 1862
Miller, Samuel Daniel Jul 16, 1862 V C Jul 16, 1862
Swayne, Noah McLean Jan 21, 1862 38-1 C Jan 24, 1862
President Buchanan, James
Black, Jeremiah Daniel Feb 5, 1861 25-26 R Feb 21, 1861
Clifford, Nathan Curtis Dec 9, 1857 26-23 C Jan 12, 1858
President Pierce, Franklin
Campbell, John McKinley Mar 21, 1853 V C Mar 22, 1853
President Fillmore, Millard
Micou, William McKinley Feb 14, 1853
N
Badger, Geoge McKinley Jan 3, 1853
W Feb 14, 1853
Bradford, Edward McKinley Aug 16, 1852
N
Curtis, Benjamin Woodbury Dec 11, 1851 V C Dec 20, 1851
President Polk, James
Grier, Robert Baldwin Aug 3, 1846 V C Aug 4, 1846
Woodbury, Levi Story Dec 23, 1845 V C Jan 3, 1846
Woodward, George Baldwin Dec 23, 1845 20-29 R Jan 22, 1846
President Tyler, John
Read, John Baldwin Feb 7, 1845
N
Nelson, Samuel Thompson Feb 4, 1845 V C Feb 14, 1845
Walworth, Reuben Thompson Dec 4, 1844
W Feb 4, 1845
King, Edward Baldwin Dec 4, 1844
W Feb 7, 1845
Walworth, Reuben 17 Thompson Jun 17, 1844
N Jun 17, 1844
Spencer, John Thompson Jun 17, 1844
W Jun 17, 1844
King, Edward Baldwin Jun 5, 1844 29-18 P Jun 15, 1844
Walworth, Reuben Thompson Mar 13, 1844 27-20 W Jun 17, 1844
Spencer, John Thompson Jan 8, 1844 21-26 R Jan 31, 1844
President Van Buren, Martin
Daniel, Peter Barbour Feb 26, 1841 25-5 C Mar 2, 1841
McKinley, John (new seat) Sep 18, 1837 V C Sep 25, 1837
President Jackson, Andrew
Catron, John (new seat) Mar 3, 1837 28-15 C Mar 8, 1837
Smith, William (new seat) Mar 3, 1837 23-18 D Mar 8, 1837
Barbour, Philip Duvall Dec 28, 1835 30-11 C Mar 15, 1836
Taney, Roger18 Marshall Dec 28, 1835 29-15 C Mar 15, 1836
Taney, Roger Duvall Jan 15, 1835 24-21 P Mar 3, 1835
Wayne, James Johnson Jan 6, 1835 V C Jan 9, 1835
Baldwin, Henry Washington Jan 4, 1830 41-2 C Jan 6, 1830
McLean, John Trimble Mar 6, 1829 V C Mar 7, 1829
President Adams, John Quincy
Crittenden, John Trimble Dec 17, 1828 23-17 P Feb 12, 1829
Trimble, Robert Todd Apr 11, 1826 27-5 C May 9, 1826
President Monroe, James
Thompson, Smith Livingston Dec 5, 1823 V C Dec 9, 1823
President Madison, James
Duvall, Gabriel Chase Nov 15, 1811 V C Nov 18, 1811
Story, Joseph Cushing Nov 15, 1811 V C Nov 18, 1811
Adams, John Quincy Cushing Feb 21, 1811
D Feb 22, 1811
Wolcott, Alexander Cushing Feb 4, 1811 9-24 R Feb 13, 1811
Lincoln, Levi Cushing Jan 2, 1811
D Jan 3, 1811
President Jefferson, Thomas
Todd, Thomas (new seat) Feb 28, 1807 V C Mar 2, 1807
Livingston, H. Brockholst Paterson Dec 13, 1806 V C Dec 17, 1806
Johnson, William Moore Mar 22, 1804 V C Mar 24, 1804
President Adams, John
Marshall, John 19 Ellsworth Jan 20, 1801 V C Jan 27, 1801
Jay, John 20 Ellsworth Dec 18, 1800
D Dec 19, 1800
Moore, Alfred Iredell Dec 4, 1799 V C Dec 10, 1799
Washington, Bushrod Wilson Dec 19, 1798 V C Dec 20, 1798
President Washington, George
Ellsworth, Oliver21 Jay Mar 3, 1796 21-1 C Mar 4, 1796
Chase, Samuel Blair Jan 26, 1796 V C Jan 27, 1796
Cushing, William 22 Jay Jan 26, 1796
D Jan 27, 1796
Rutledge, John 23 Jay Dec 10, 1795 10-14 R Dec 15, 1795
Paterson, William Johnson Mar 4, 1793 V C Mar 4, 1793
Paterson, William Johnson Feb 27, 1793
W Feb 28, 1793
Johnson, Thomas Rutledge Oct 31, 1791 V C Nov 7, 1791
Iredell, James Harrison Feb 8, 1790 V C Feb 10, 1790
Blair, John
Sep 24, 1789 V C Sep 26, 1789
Wilson, James
Sep 24, 1789 V C Sep 26, 1789
Harrison, Robert
Sep 24, 1789
D Sep 26, 1789
Cushing, William
Sep 24, 1789 V C Sep 26, 1789
Rutledge, John
Sep 24, 1789 V C Sep 26, 1789
Jay, John 24
Sep 24, 1789 V C Sep 26, 1789
 
This chart lists only nominations officially submitted to the Senate, and does not include nominations announced but never officially submitted (such as Douglas Ginsburg in 1987).
 
*The date of the nomination is the date on the president’s letter to the Senate (except the undated 1937 Hugo Black letter). Some nominees may have been serving before this date under recess appointments.
 
**Vote Key: ***Result Key:
89-7 No. 242 (for example) – Tally and roll call vote number C – Confirmed and served (119) 25
V – Voice Vote D – Declined (7)
  N – No Action (10)
  P – Postponed (3)
  R – Rejected (12)
  W – Withdrawn (12)
 
  1. Nominated to chief justice.
  2. Sitting justice elevated to chief justice.
  3. Nominated to chief justice.
  4. Sitting justice nominated to chief justice; nomination filibustered and withdrawn.
  5. Nominated to chief justice.
  6. Nominated to chief justice.
  7. Sitting justice elevated to chief justice.
  8. Nominated to chief justice.
  9. Nominated to chief justice.
  10. Sitting justice elevated to chief justice.
  11. Nominated to chief justice.
  12. Nominated to chief justice.
  13. Unsuccessful nominee for chief justice.
  14. Unsuccessful nominee for chief justice.
  15. Confirmed, but died before he took office.
  16. Nominated to chief justice.
  17. On motion to proceed to consider the nomination, an objection was made.
  18. Nominated to chief justice.
  19. Nominated to chief justice.
  20. Nominated to chief justice.
  21. Nominated to chief justice.
  22. Sitting justice nominated to chief justice, but declined and continued to serve as an associate justice.
  23. Offered his services as a replacement for the soon-to-retire John Jay in June 1795, so President Washington offered him a temporary commission (Senate was in recess). The Senate convened in December and voted on the nomination, making Rutledge the first rejected Supreme Court nominee and the only “recess appointed” justice not to be subsequently confirmed by the Senate.
  24. Nominated to chief justice.
  25. 7 nominees (see D in Result Key) were confirmed, but declined to serve.
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list courtesy senate.gov